Razlika između inačica stranice »Kaloča«

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Površine je 53,18 km četvornih. Nalazi se na 46°32' sjeverne zemljopisne širine i 18°59'8" istočne zemljopisne dužine, nekoliko kilometara istočno od [[Dunav]]a, u regiji [[Južni Alföld]].
 
Od naselja, par kilometara zapadno od Kalače se nalazi [[Voktov]], prema istoku je [[Negyvenszállás]], 10 km prema sjeveroistoku je [[Kmara (Kalački kotar)|Kmara]], a 10 km prema sjeverozapadu je [[Vusad]]. 5 kilometara prema jugu je [[Baćino]].
 
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[[Great Alföld|Great Hungarian Plain]] (Alföld in Hungarian) stretches from the Danube to the country’s eastern border. A land of rivers, [he Danube, the [[Tisza]],the [[Mureş River|Maros]] and the several [[Körös River|Körös rivers]].
Painters and poets have been captivated by the vastness of the Alföld. Travellers in bygone times also often recorded the spiritual-like feelings they experienced when faced with the ocean-like extent of the plain. Other visitors are enticed by the flora and bird reserves of the national parks and nature conservation areas of what ranks as Hungary’s warmest region basking in the greatest number of hours of sunshine. A delightful succession of sand-dunes, untouched meadows, a truly natural environment, [[reed bed|reed beds]], aquatic life thriving in tranquil [[oxbow lake]]s, tiny whitewashed farms, tended pastures and swaying fields of wheat make up a unique sight for the traveller.
 
The nodal points of the Great Plain, the towns, are varied. Each has its own history, architecture and modern-day attractions.
Ruins and memorial sites dating from before the Turkish invasion in the 16th century remain popular tourist attractions, while historical buildings still in use today date from the period of settlement and reconstruction after the expulsion of the [[Turkish people|Turks]].
 
The alternating landscape of [[Puszta]] and river valleys is also home to many nationalities in Hungary, where their traditions and customs are preserved and cultivated. The guest can see and enjoy the rich and living folklore of the [[Slovaks]], [[Romanians]], [[Germans]], [[Serbs]] and [[Croats]].
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== Upravna organizacija ==
Grad je poznat kao sjedište Kalačko-bačke biskupije koja je u međuvremenu podignuta na razinu nadbiskupije, a nosi ime [[Kalačko-kečkemetska nadbiskupija]]. Rečenu biskupiju je osnovao [[Stjepan I. Sveti|sveti Stjepan]].
 
Ovaj [[barok]]ni provincijski gradić u [[Panonska nizina|Panonskoj nizini]] je star je koliko i sama država Mađarska.
Područje je dosta stradalo za turskih osvajanja, a nakon oslobođenja od Turaka, Kalača je dosta stradala u velikom požaru [[1875.]], koji je uništio veliki dio grada.
Ugarski kralj [[Arpad]] se nakon svojih osvajačkih pohoda skrasio ovdje.
 
Uskoro je ugarski kralj [[Stjepan I. Sveti|Stjepan I.]] uspostavio [[ostrogonska biskupija|ostrogonsku]] i [[kalačka biskupija|kalačku nadbiskupiju]].
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The [[Baroque]] provincial town in the Great Plain lies approximately {{convert|118|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} south of Budapest on the east side of the Danube. The town is almost as old as the Hungarian state itself. After the Conquest the tribe of Prince [[Árpád]] settled down here. Later, along with [[Esztergom]], Kalocsa was an archdiocese founded by King [[Stephen I of Hungary|Stephen]] in the early years of the Hungarian state. The first archbishop of the town was [[Asztrik]], who brought the crown to Stephen from the Pope. In the first decade of the 11th century the first church was built. In the [[Middle Ages]] history of Hungrary we find some generals among the archbishops. For example [[Ugrin Csák (archbishop)|Ugrin Csák]] (archbishop from 1219 till 1241) was the leader against the [[Tartars]] at the [[battle of Muhi]] 11th April [[1241]].
 
Prvi nadbiskup u Kalači je bio sveti [[Astrik]], koji je donio kralju Stjepanu krunu od Pape. U prvom deseljeću 11. stoljeću se sagradilo prvu crkvu.
Another significant general was [[Pál Tomori]] who was (archbishop from 1523-1526) the leader of the Hungarian army against the Turks. He was killed in an action at the [[battle of Mohács]].
 
U srednjovjekovnoj Ugarskoj nalazimo generale među nadbiskupima. Tako je primjerice nadbiskup [[Ugrin Csák (nadbiskup)|Ugrin Csák]] (nadbiskup od [[1219.]] do [[1241.]] bio vođom vojske u [[bitka kod mjesta Mohi|bitci kod Mohija]] protiv [[Tatari|Tatara]] [[11. travnja]] [[1241.]].
The Turks entered Kalocsa August 15, 1529. People of the town dispersed, nobody cultivated the lands and the archiepiscopal status lost its importance. In the year [[1602]], Hungarian [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] [[Hajduk|Haiduk]] burned down Kalocsa. After the 148 years lasting rule 13 October, 1686 the Turks burnt down the castle of Kalocsa and withdrew troops from it.
After these events the peace didn’t come because of the uprising against the [[Habsburg]]s led by The Transylvanian Prince [[Francis II Rákóczi|Ferenc Rákóczi II]].
 
Drugi poznati general je bio [[Pál Tomori]] (nadbiskup od [[1523.]]-[[1526.]]) koji je vodio ugarsku vojsku protiv Turaka. Poginio je u [[mohačka bitka|mohačkoj bitci]].
The returned archbishops tried to increase the count of subjects with success. Imre Cardinal Csáki (1710-1732) got back the lands for Kalocsa and its neighbours. So they formed a very big (about 23,000 hectares) territory. There were marshlands, gardens, vineyards, etc. lying by Kalocsa.
 
Turci su zauzeli Kaloču [[15. kolovoza]] [[1529.]]. Stanovništvo se razbježalo i nitko nije obrađivao zemlju i nadbiskupijski status je izgubio svoj značaj.
 
[[1602.]] su [[kalvinizam|kalvinistički]] [[hajduk|hajduci]] spalili Kaloču.
 
Nakon 148 vlasti su Turci [[13. listopada]] [[1686.]] spalili kalački dvorac i povukli svoju posadu iz njega. Unatoč turskom povlačenju, mir nije došao u ovaj kraj zbog ustanka protiv [[Habsburg]]a kojeg je predvodio sedmogradski vladar [[Franjo Rakoci II.]].
 
Kalački su nadbiskupi su uspješno nastojali povećati broj stanovnika na području svoje nadležnosti. Kardinal [[Imre Csáki]] (1710.-1732.) je vratio Kalaču i susjedne krajeve površine 23 tisuće hektara, mahom močvara, vrtova, vinograda.
 
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In the 18th century the most meaningful social stratum was the villeinage who had lands. The next were the craftswomen and craftsmen. The first charter of incorporation was mentioned in 1737 in Kalocsa. In 1769 there were 90 craftswomen and men living in the town. Because of the clergy and the schools there were a lot of intellectuals. Kalocsa became a centre in Hungary again but it couldn’t take back its importance as it used to have before the Turks.
 
At the beginning of the 20th century the peasants were working for the archbishop or as a navvy. During the counter-revolution of the Hungarian Soviet Republic 20 people were hanged in the main street of the town. Fortunately nothing happened in the 2nd World War. Then the communist power deprived the town of being subsidized by the state because of the archbishopric. The industrial development of the town started at the end of the 1960s. It resulted a big change in the life of the inhabitants of the town and the people living in small villages around Kalocsa.
 
Nowadays Kalocsa is a picturesque little town, whose inhabitants are working in it or on the lands nearby.
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