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[[Datoteka:Zagrebačka mumija.jpg|mini|400px|Zagrebačka mumija]]
{{Other uses}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2010}}[[File:Mummy in Vatican Museums.jpg|thumb|300px|An Egyptian mummy kept in the [[Vatican Museums]].]]
A '''mummy''' is a body, human or animal, whose [[human skin|skin]] and [[organs]] have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to [[chemical]]s, extreme cold (ice mummies), very low [[humidity]], or lack of air when bodies are submerged in [[bog]]s, so that the recovered body will not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately [[enbalming|embalmed]] with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back at least to the 1730s.
'''Zagrebačka mumija''' je arheološki izložak iz [[Drevni Egipat|Egipta]] u [[Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu|Arheološkom muzeju u Zagrebu]]. To je [[mumija]] umotana u [[lan]]eni povoj s najduljim [[Etrušćani|etruščanskim]] natpisom na svijetu.
Mummies of humans and other animals have been found all around the world, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, and as cultural artifacts. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt, many of which are cats.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/09/0915_040915_petmummies.html|title=Egyptian Animals Were Mummified Same Way as Humans|publisher=news.nationalgeographic.com|accessdate=2 November 2008|last=|first=}}</ref> The oldest known naturally mummified human corpse is a [[decapitated]] head dated as 6,000 years old, found in 1936 at the site named Inca Cueva No. 4 in [[South America]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.archaeometry.org/paleoamerican.htm|title=Andean Head Dated 6,000 Years Old|publisher=archaeometry.org|accessdate=20 February 2009}}</ref>
== Povijest pronalaska ==
In addition to the well-known mummies of [[Ancient Egypt]], deliberate mummification was a feature of several ancient cultures in areas of South America and Asia which have very dry climates. There are more than 1000 mummies in [[Xinjiang]], [[People's Republic of China|China]].<ref>[http://history.21voc.com/bencandy-4-106500-1.html 中国新疆出土的三千年干尸不腐之谜]</ref>
The oldest-known deliberate mummy is a child, one of the [[Chinchorro mummies]] found in the [[Camarones Valley]], [[Chile]], and dates from around 5050 BC.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Bartkusa, Luke |author2=Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri |author3=Arriaza, Bernardo |author4=Bellis, David |author5=Yañez, Jorge |year=2011 |title=Exploring lead exposure in ancient Chilean mummies using a single strand of hair by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) |journal=Microchemical Journal |volume=98 |pages=267–274 |doi=10.1016/j.microc.2011.02.008 |issn=0026-265X |issue=2 }}</ref>
Mumiju je kupio ''Mihael Barić'' prilikom svog posjeta Egiptu ([[1848.]]/[[1849.]]). Njegov brat ''Ilija Barić'' darovao ju je ''[[Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti|Jugoslavenskoj akademiji]] u [[Zagreb]]u'', [[1862.]] godine i trajno je pohranjena u Arheološkom muzeju u Zagrebu.
==Etymology and meaning==
Njemački [[Egiptologija|egiptolog]] ''Heinrich Brugsch'' je [[1869.]] godine otkrio natpis za koji nije znao da pripada [[Etruščani]]ma. Godine [[1891.]] [[beč]]ki profesor i egiptolog dr. ''Jacob Krall'' otkrio je da mumijini povoji zapravo kriju najduži sačuvani etruščanski natpis na svijetu.
{{Hiero|Mummy (''sˁḥ'')|<hiero>z:,:a-H</hiero>|align=right|era=egypt}}
Tijekom 1980tih povoji su temeljito restaurirani i rekonstruirani, ponovno fotografirani infracrvenim zrakama, te je paleografskom analizom i radioaktivnim ugljikom (C-14) utvrđena njena starost na oko 390. g. pr. Kr.
The [[English language|English]] word ''mummy'' is derived from [[medieval]] [[Latin]] ''mumia'', a borrowing of the [[Persian language|Persian]] word ''mūm'' (موم), which means "[[bitumen]]".<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mummy origin of word "mummy"]</ref> Because of the blackened [[human skin|skin]], [[bitumen]] was once thought to be used extensively in ancient Egyptian [[embalming]] procedures.{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}} (See also: [[Mummia]].) In English "mummy" as a term for a "medical preparation of the substance of mummies" is recorded from c. 1400, earlier than the sense of a complete body, with [[Richard Hakluyt]] in 1599 complaining that "these dead bodies are the Mummy which the Phisistians and Apothecaries doe against our willes make us to swallow".<ref>OED, "Mummy, 1", citing Hakluyr's "Voyages, II, 201"</ref>
== Zagrebačka lanena knjiga ==
The [[OED]] gives as its sense 3 "the body of a human being or animal enbalmed (according to the ancient Egyptian or some analogous method) as a preparation for burial", citing sources from 1615 onwards, later than the first uses of other senses that include ground up mummy used as "a medicinal preparation", which dates to c. 1400.<ref>[[OED]], "Mummy", 1, 2, 3</ref> However sense 3c: "A human or animal body desiccated by exposure to sun or air. Also applied to the frozen carcase of an animal imbedded in prehistoric ice", is cited to [[Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences|Chamber's Cyclopaedia, 1727-41]], and the Victorian zoologist [[Francis Trevelyan Buckland]].<ref>[[OED]], "Mummy", 3c</ref>
[[Datoteka:Lanena knjiga (Liber linteus Zagrebiensis).jpg|mini|400px|Lanena knjiga]]
==The Egyptian mummification process==
The first evidence of intentional mummification in Egypt dates to 3500 B.C.<ref name=strudwick>{{Cite book|last=Strudwick |first =Nigel|title= Masterpieces of Ancient Egypt|year=2006| publisher=British Museum Publishers| place=London| pages= 26–27}}</ref> Parts of mummified human bodies recovered from [[Hierakonpolis]] exhibit evidence of resin and linen wrappings.<ref name=strudwick/>
'''Zagrebačka lanena knjiga''' (''Liber linteus Zagrebiensis'') rukopis je s najduljim sačuvanim tekstom [[etruščanski jezik|etruščanskog jezika]].
The earliest intact Egyptian mummy, [[Gebelein predynastic mummies#Description|ID #32751]], dates to approximately 3400 BC, and is currently held in the [[British Museum]].<ref name=brm32751>{{Citation|title= Human Mummy| work=The British Museum |url= http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=117645&partid=1 |accessdate= 23 November 2011}}</ref> Mummy 32751 was previously nicknamed "[[Ginger (mummy)|Ginger]]" for its hair color, but this practice was stopped in 2004, in order to afford more dignity to human remains. Mummy #32751 was an adult male; the exact age at death is uncertain. It was apparently preserved by direct contact with the dry desert sand, though it is uncertain whether the mummification was intended. Pottery vessels were recovered from the grave, but their significance is uncertain.<ref name=brm32751/>
Platno s oko 1130 riječi sačuvano je u pet naknadno izrezanih traka kojima je bila omotana egipatska mumija. Duljina cijele knjige iznosi oko 340 cm, a širina najšire trake je 35 cm. Tekst je raspoređen u 12 stupaca s različitim brojem redaka (od 26 do 36). Pretpostavlja se da sadrži niz obrednih propisa vezanih uz vjerske rituale starih Etruščana. Kako je etruščanski jezik još uvijek slabo poznat, dosad je poznato značenje samo pojedinih riječi koje spominju žrtvene darove i datume pojedinih svetkovina.
From the [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom]] onwards, embalmers used salts to remove moisture from the body. The salt-like substance found on the banks of salt lakes, [[natron]], dried out and preserved more flesh than bone. Once dried, mummies were ritualistically anointed with oils and perfumes. The emptied body was then covered in natron, to speed up the process of [[dehydration]] and prevent decomposition. Natron dries the body up faster than desert sand, preserving the body more effectively. Often finger and toe protectors were placed over the mummy's fingers and toes to prevent breakage. They were wrapped with strips of white linen to protect the body from being damaged. After that, they were wrapped in a sheet of canvas to further protect them. Many sacred charms and amulets were placed in and around the mummy and the wrappings. This was intended to protect the mummy from harm and to give good luck to the [[Egyptian soul|Ka]] of the mummy. Once preserved, they were laid to rest in a [[sarcophagus]] inside a tomb, where it was believed that the mummy would rest eternally. The mummy's mouth would later be opened in an [[opening of the mouth ceremony|ritual designed to symbolize breathing]], giving rise to legends about resurrected mummies.<ref>{{cite book |author=Aufderheide, Arthur C. |title=The scientific study of mummies |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge, UK |year=2003 |pages= |isbn=0-521-81826-5 |oclc= |doi= |ISBN status=May be invalid - please double check}}; p. 525.</ref> In some cases, a mummy has been discovered in an unmolested tomb, only to be found in a state of advanced decomposition due to the proximity of the water table. This was the case with the discovery in 1998 of the mummy of [[Iufaa]], an Egyptian priest and administer who lived around 500 BC.
Ovi ovoji s natpisom otvaraju jasnu mogućnost postojanja jakih komunikacija između drevnih Etrurije i Egipta.
[[Transliteracija]] dijela teksta (9. stupac):
The most famous [[Ancient Egyptian burial customs|Egyptian mummies]] are those of [[Seti I]] and [[Rameses II]] (13th century BC).
:''vacl vinum śantiśtś celi pen trytym''
===Scientific study of Egyptian mummies===
:''θi θapneśtś trytanaśa hanθin celi''
[[File:Mummy at British Museum.jpg|left|thumb|300px|Mummy in the British Museum]]
:''tyr hetym vinym θic vacl heχz etnam''
Mummies were much sought-after by museums worldwide in the 19th and early 20th centuries and many exhibit mummies today. Notably fine examples are exhibited at the [[Egyptian Museum]] in [[Cairo]], at the [[Ägyptisches Museum]] in [[Berlin]], and at the [[British Museum]] in [[London]]. The Egyptian city of [[Luxor]] is also home to a specialized [[Mummification Museum]]. The mummified remains of what turned out to be [[Rameses I]] ended up in a Daredevil Museum near [[Niagara Falls]] on the [[United States]]&ndash;[[Canada]] border; records indicate that it had been sold to a Canadian in 1860 and exhibited alongside displays such as a two-headed calf for nearly 140 years, until the Michael C. Carlos Museum in [[Atlanta, Georgia|Atlanta]], Georgia, which had acquired the mummy along with other artifacts, determined it to be royal and returned it to Egypt's [[Supreme Council of Antiquities]]. It is currently on display in the [[Luxor Museum]]. {{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
:''iχ matam cnticn θsepen teśamitn''
:''murce θi nunθen etnam θi tryθ etnam''
:''hanθin etnam celycn etnam aθumitn''
:''peθereni eslem zaθrum mur in velθineś''
:''cilθś vacl ara θui useti catneti slapiχyn''
:''slapinaś favin yfli spyrta eisna hinθy''
:''cla θesns''
Jedna pretpostavka je da je u Egiptu postojala mala etruščanska zajednica izbjeglica (kao u [[Aleksandrija|Aleksandriji]]), koja je poprimila egipatske običaje [[mumificiranje|mumificiranja]].
Modern scientific methods are being applied to mummies for archeological research. Mummies can be studied without the need to unwrap them using [[CAT scan]] and [[X-ray]] machines to form a digital image of the body. This has been very useful to [[biology|biologists]] and [[anthropology|anthropologists]], providing a wealth of information about the health and [[life expectancy]] of ancient people. In 2008, the latest generation CT scanners (64- and 256-slice Philips machines at the [[University of Chicago]]) were used to study [[Meresamun]], a temple singer and priestess at the Temple of [[Amun]] whose mummy now resides at the [[Oriental Institute of Chicago]]. Mummies have also been used in [[medicine]] to calibrate [[CAT scan]] machines at levels of [[ionizing radiation|radiation]] that would be too dangerous for living people. {{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
== Natpis na papirusu ==
[[File:Mummy 501594 fh000031.jpg|thumb|300px|A female mummy in the [[British Museum]].]]
Scientists interested in [[molecular cloning]] the [[DNA]] of mummies have reported findings of analyzable DNA in an Egyptian mummy dating to c. 400 BC.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Pääbo S |title=Molecular cloning of Ancient Egyptian mummy DNA |journal=Nature |volume=314 |issue=6012 |pages=644–5 |year=1985 |pmid=3990798| doi = 10.1038/314644a0}}</ref> Although analysis of the hair of [[Ancient Egypt]]ian mummies from the Late [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom]] has revealed evidence of a stable diet,<ref>{{cite journal |author=Macko SA, Engel MH, Andrusevich V, Lubec G, O'Connell TC, Hedges RE |title=Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair |journal=Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. |volume=354 |issue=1379 |pages=65–75; discussion 75–6 |year=1999 |pmid=10091248 |doi=10.1098/rstb.1999.0360 |pmc=1692445}}</ref> [[Ancient Egypt]]ian mummies from c. 3200 BC show signs of severe [[anemia|anaemia]] and [[Hematology|hemolytic disorders]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Marin A, Cerutti N, Massa ER |title=Use of the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) in the study of HbS in predynastic Egyptian remains |journal=Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. |volume=75 |issue=5–6 |pages=27–30 |year=1999 |pmid=11148985 |doi=}}</ref>
Istraživanjem popratnog [[papirus]]a koji se nalazio u pogrebnoj opremi pokojnice, utvrđeno je da on sadrži nekoliko poglavlja [[Knjiga mrtvih|Knjige mrtvih]] s podacima o pokojnici. ''Nesi-hensu'' bila je žena ''Paher-hensua'', »božanskog krojača« iz [[Teba (Egipat)|Tebe]], koji je izrađivao odjeću za kultne statue boga [[Amon]]a.
Dr. [[Bob Brier]] of [[Long Island University]] has been the first modern scientist attempting to apply ancient Egyptian methods of mummification. {{citation needed|date=October 2011}}
Po Berlotovoj metodi dio teksta glasi:
:''To sam ja boginja Etna. Bučna vatra (izlazi iz) velike ljute gore, to sam ja boginja u Etni je bučna vatra ljuta, to sam ja boginja iz Etne…Sveta i jasna naša voljena Etna – čuo si u Thirinu Etnu, veličajte Etnu…Sretno si pobjegao medvjedu na gori. A veliki sretni sin Silo je prešao…Kada je ključem zatvorio vrata…''
===Post-interment care===
Of special interest are finds that may testify to the beliefs of the ancient population of Egypt. In two Neolithic cemeteries, skulls were found that indicated tooth replacement in antiquity. In both cases, the teeth were apparently collected and repositioned by people during later burials. Also in the same cemetery, four bracelets were found encircling a right humerus, which had been moved from its original position, during the deposition of a later burial. However, the bracelets were maintained in place by the insertion of the individual’s own right ulna and radius that had been fractured post-mortem. Such manipulation suggests that the intention was to repair the damage caused during the insertion of later interments. These intentions are supported by the discoveries of two skulls with mis-positioned teeth. In one case, the right orbit contained eighteen of the individual’s teeth; in the other, the nasal aperture contained one tooth.<ref name="britishmuseum.org">[http://wwhiw.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Kobusiewicz.pdf Neolitihc Origin of Body preservation in Ancient Egypt]</ref>
Kako se etruščanski natpis našao obavijen oko jedne Egipćanke u doba kada Etruščani gube prevlast u sjevernoj [[Italija|Italiji]] (dok jača [[Rimska Republika]]), ostaje jedna od velikih tajni arheologije.
All of these examples suggest a deep conviction about the importance of body preservation, i.e., keeping the body together, ideally in an undisturbed state. Perhaps this was necessary to secure eternal life––similar to the belief that is so popular throughout all of ancient Egyptian civilization.<ref name="britishmuseum.org"/>
== Vanjske poveznice ==
==Deliberate mummification in other cultures==
* [http://www.amz.hr/hrv/page.asp?id=odjeli&sub=1&sub2=2&url=egipatska_zbirka Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu] - Egipatska zbirka.
===South America===
* [http://www.amz.hr/hrv/page.asp?id=odjeli&sub=1&sub2=6&url=razne_kolekcije Zagrebačka lanena knjiga]
====Chinchorro Mummies====
* [http://www.ffzg.hr/arheo/ska/fragmenti/2-3/liberLinteus.htm Zagrebačka lanena knjiga] na ''Fragmenti online''.
[[File:Momia cultura chinchorro año 3000 AC.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Chinchorro mummies are the oldest deliberate mummies.]]
* [http://argonauti.blog.hr/arhiva-2005-12.html Etruščanska teorija podrijetla Hrvata]
{{Main|Chinchorro mummies}}
South American cultures provide a mixture of deliberately prepared mummies, in the dry areas on the Pacific coast of [[Chile]] and southern [[Peru]], and naturally mummified remains, mostly found high in the [[Andes]] mountains. The prepared [[Chinchorro mummies]], are the oldest prepared mummified bodies ever found, ranging from about 5000-3000 BC, and apparently come from a society where all human burials were prepared for mummification. The bodies were carefully prepared, using three different techniques at different periods, but the cold, dry climate also aided desiccating the corpses and preserving them intact. Bodies in the [[Nazca]] [[Chauchilla Cemetery]], from about AD 200-900, were also carefully prepared.
[[Kategorija:Arheološki artefakti u Hrvatskoj]]
===Inca Mummies===
[[File:The replica of the plomo mummy at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in Sangtiago Chile 2009 May 24.JPG|thumb|Replica of the well preserved Plomo mummy]]
Some of the best-preserved natural mummies date from the [[Inca]] period in [[Peru]] and [[Chile]] some 500<ref>http://maam.culturasalta.gov.ar/index.php?lang=english</ref> years ago, where children were ritually sacrificed on the summits of mountains in the [[Andes]]. In 1995, the frozen body, not desiccated and so not strictly a mummy, of a 11- to 14-year-old [[Inca Empire|Inca]] girl who had died some time between 1440 and 1450 was discovered on Mount Ampato in southern [[Peru]]. Known as "[[Mummy Juanita]]" ("Momia Juanita" in Spanish) or "The Ice Maiden", some archaeologists believe that she was a [[human sacrifice]] to the [[Inca mythology|Inca mountain god]] Inti.
In Chile, there is 'Miss Chile', a well preserved Tiwanaku era mummy.<ref name="Aufderheide2003">{{cite book|last=Aufderheide|first=Arthur C.|title=The scientific study of mummies|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=P_xj3QTHHvoC&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=Miss+Chile+Mummy|accessdate=1 March 2011|year=2003|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521818261|page=156}}</ref> She is currently kept by the [[Gustavo Page Museum]] in San Pedro de Atacama. The atacaman community decided to stop displaying the mummies of their ancestor, as a sign of respect to their forefathers.<ref>http://www.alovelyworld.com/webchili/htmgb/chl030.htm</ref> Three child mummies, discovered in 1999 on Mount [[Llullaillaco]], 6700 m above sea level, are on display at the Museum of High Altitude Archaeology in Salta, Argentina.<ref>http://maam.culturasalta.gov.ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1&Itemid=2</ref>
In addition to the ancient [[Chachapoyas culture|Chachapoyas]] peoples, mummies are associated with the Chazuta culture of the Peruvian [[Upper Amazon]]<ref>http://fudes-unsm.org/museo/la-seccion-de-antropologia-del-museo-regional-unsm/cultura/antropologia/arqueologia/urnas-funerarias/</ref>
[[Kategorija:Drevni Egipat]]
===Canary Islands===
[[Kategorija:Muzeji u Zagrebu]]
[[File:Momia guanche museo santa cruz 27-07.JPG|thumb|300px|[[Mummy of San Andrés]] in the [[Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre]] ([[Tenerife]], [[Canary Islands]], [[Spain]])]]
{{Main|Guanche mummies}}
The [[Indigenous peoples|aboriginal]] [[guanches]] of the [[Canary Islands]] embalmed their dead; many mummies have been found in an extreme state of desiccation, each weighing not more than 6 or 7 pounds. Their method was similar to that of the ancient [[Egyptians]]. The process of embalming seems to have varied. In [[Tenerife]], the corpse was simply wrapped up in goat and sheep skins (though many areas of the island also treated the body with vegetal elements), while on other islands, a resinous substance was used to preserve the body, which was then placed in a cave difficult to access, or buried under a [[tumulus]]. The work of embalming was reserved for a special class, with women for female corpses, and men for male. Embalming seems not to have been universal, and bodies were often simply hidden in caves or buried.
<!-- interwiki -->
[[File:Palermo Rosalia Lombardo.jpg|150px|thumb|left|Rosalia Lombardo in 1995]]
[[ca:Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis]]
The [[Capuchin catacombs of Palermo]] are burial [[catacomb]]s in [[Palermo]], [[Sicily]], southern [[Italy]]. Today they provide a somewhat [[macabre]] tourist attraction as well as an extraordinary historical record.
[[da:Liber Linteus]]
[[de:Agramer Mumienbinde]]
Palermo's [[Order of Friars Minor Capuchin|Capuchin]] [[monastery]] outgrew its original [[cemetery]] in the 16th century and monks began to excavate [[crypt]]s below it. In 1599 they mummified one of their number, recently-dead brother Silvestro of Gubbio, and placed him into the catacombs. Originally the catacombs were intended only for the dead [[friar]]s. However, in the following centuries it became a status symbol to be entombed into the Capuchin catacombs.
[[en:Liber Linteus]]
[[eo:Liber Linteus]]
The bodies were dehydrated on the racks of ceramic pipes in the catacombs and sometimes later washed with [[vinegar]]. Some of the bodies were [[embalming|embalmed]] and others enclosed in sealed glass cabinets. Monks were preserved with their everyday clothing and sometimes with ropes they had worn as a [[penance]].
[[es:Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis]]
[[fr:Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis]]
One of the most popular mummies at the Capuchin catacombs is that of [[Rosalia Lombardo]] who died in 1920. After Rosalia's death, her father had Alfredo Salafia mummify the girl's body, with a method of which was unknown until recently. Rosalia Lombardo's body has begun to discolor, which is a sign of decomposition.<ref>http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/01/090126-sicily-mummy.html</ref>
[[it:Liber linteus]]
[[la:Liber linteus Zagrabiensis]]
==Natural mummification==
[[no:Liber Linteus]]
Mummies that are formed as a result of naturally-occurring environmental conditions, such as extreme coldness ([[Ötzi the Iceman]], the [[Pazyryk burials#Ice Maiden|Ice Maiden]], the [[Llullaillaco]] child mummies), acid ([[Tollund Man]]), [[salinity]] ([[Salt Man]]), or [[desiccation|desiccating dryness]] ([[Tarim mummies]]), have been found all over the world. More than a thousand [[Iron Age]] corpses, so called [[bog body|bog bodies]], have been found in [[bog]]s in northern Europe, such as the [[Yde Girl]] and the [[Lindow Man]].<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bog/iron-nf.html | title = Bog bodies of the Iron Age | work = [[NOVA (TV series)|NOVA]] | accessdate = 25 October 2007 | date = 1 January 2006}}</ref> Natural mummification of other animal species also occurs; this is most common in species from shallow [[saline water]] environments, especially those with a body structure which is particularly favourable to this process, such as [[seahorse]]s and [[starfish]]. Old mummies such as the dinosaurs [[Leonardo_(dinosaur)#Discovery_and_later_finds|Leonardo]], [[Dakota (fossil)|Dakota]], and the [[Dinosaur mummy|Trachodon mummy]] in America were very valuable discoveries.
[[pl:Liber Linteus]]
[[ru:Liber Linteus]]
[[sh:Lanena knjiga]]
[[File:Momie de Jingzhou.jpg|thumb|300px|Mummy in the history museum of [[Jingzhou]]]]
[[simple:Liber Linteus]]
[[sr:Загребачка мумија]]
=== China ===
[[uk:Liber Linteus]]
{{Expand section|date=December 2011}}
In China a few mummies were found, preserved in the [[Tarim Basin]] with complete bodies and organs (brains, stomachs were also present from 2,500 year old mummies), and are able to be moved and articulated with care. These mummies were of European descent,<ref>[http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/15/abstract/ Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the Bronze Age, Chunxiang Li et al., BMC Biology, 17 February 2010]</ref> and are known today as the [[Tarim Mummies]].
=== Siberia ===
In the summer of 1993, a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. [[Natalia Polosmak]] discovered the [[Siberian Ice Maiden]] in a sacred area known as the ''Pastures of Heaven'', on the [[Ukok Plateau]] in the [[Altay Mountains]] near the [[Mongolia]]n border. She was a member of the [[Pazyryk culture]] and lived some time in the 5th century BC. The mummy was frozen because of the severe climatic conditions of the Siberian steppe and never thawed. She was buried with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey. Her left arm and hand were tattooed with [[animal style]] figures, including a highly stylized [[deer]].
The Ice Maiden has been a source of some recent controversy. The mummy's skin has suffered some slight decay, and the tattoos have faded since the excavation. Some residents of the [[Altai Republic]], formed after the breakup of the [[Soviet Union]], have requested the return of the Ice Maiden, currently stored in [[Novosibirsk]] in [[Siberia]].<ref>{{cite web | title = The Siberian Ice Maiden | url = http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/more/bl-icemaiden.htm|publisher=ExploreNorth | accessdate = 17 March 2007 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last = Polosmak | first = Natalya | title = A Mummy Unearthed from the Pastures of Heaven | journal =[[National Geographic Magazine]] | pages=80–103| year = 1994}}</ref>
Another Siberian mummy, a man nicknamed "Conan," was discovered with tattoos of two monsters resembling [[griffin]]s decorating his chest and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm.
=== Italy ===
Natural mummification is rare, requiring specific conditions to occur, but it has produced some of the oldest known mummies. The most famous ancient mummy is [[Ötzi the Iceman]], frozen in a [[glacier]] in the [[Ötztal Alps]] around 3300 BC and found in 1991. Also in the [[Umbria]] region mummies were discovered in 1805<ref>http://www.aziendeumbre.it/html/view_mummie.ferentillo.grotte.terni.umbria.html</ref> in [[Ferentillo]]. These are twenty natural mummies, the most ancient of which dates four centuries and the most recent is from the 19th century.
=== Czech Republic ===
[[File:Brno CZ Crypt at the Capuchin Monastery 02.jpg|thumb|200px|Mummified bodies in the crypt of the Capuchin monastery in [[Brno]].]]
About 30 bodies are preserved at the ''Kapucínská Krypta'' ("[[Order of Friars Minor Capuchin|Capuchin]] crypt") in [[Brno]], including that of [[Baron Franz von der Trenck]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.brnoinfo.com/capuchin-monastery/|title=''Capuchin Monastery and Vault''|publisher=Brno Tourist Information|accessdate=9 June 2011}}</ref> Natural ventilation is thought to be responsible for the desiccation and preservation of the bodies. The oldest corpse is Kuneš James Rosenthal, who died in 1658.<ref>{{Cz icon}} {{cite web|url=http://www.kapucini.cz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9:hrobkainfo&catid=6:hrobka&Itemid=10|title=''Kapucínská hrobka''|publisher=Řád menších bratří kapucínů|accessdate=9 June 2011}}</ref>
=== Denmark ===
[[File:Skrudstrupspigen.jpg|250px|thumb|right|The Skrydstrup Woman was unearthed from a grave mound in Denmark.]]
Apart from several bog bodies, Denmark has also yielded several other mummies, such as the three Borum Eshøj mummies, the Skrydstrup Woman and the [[Egtved Girl]], who were all found inside burial mounds, or [[tumuli|tumulus]].
In 1875, the Borum Eshøj grave mound was uncovered, which had been built around three coffins, which belonged to a middle aged man and woman as well as a man in his early twenties.<ref>http://www.visitdenmark.com/uk/en-gb/productpage/produktside.htm?Id=9819&Culture=en-gb&simple=true&description=true</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">oldtiden.natmus.dk/udstillingen/...i_borum...mand...borum.../uk/</ref><ref name="ReferenceA"/><ref name="ReferenceA"/> Through examination the woman was discovered to be around 50–60 years old. She was found with several artifacts made of bronze, consisting of buttons, a belt plate, and rings, showing she was of higher class. All of the hair had been removed from the skull later when farmers had dug through the casket. Her original hairstyle is unknown.<ref>http://oldtiden.natmus.dk/udstillingen/bronzealderen/familien_i_borum_eshoej/kvinden_fra_borum_eshoej/language/uk/</ref> The two men wore kilts, and the younger man wore a sheath of which contained a bronze dagger.
All three mummies were dated to 1351-1345. BCE<ref>http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/aneu_02/aneu_02_00129.html</ref>
The Skrydstrup Woman was unearthed from a [[tumulus]] in Southern Jutland, in 1935. Carbon-14 dating showed that she had died around 1300 BCE; examination also revealed that she was around 18–19 years old at the time of death, and that she had been buried in the summertime. Her hair had been drawn up in an elaborate hairstyle, which was then covered by a horse hair hairnet made by [[sprang]] technique.<ref>http://www.visitdenmark.com/uk/en-gb/productpage/produktside.htm?Id=3426&Culture=en-gb&simple=true&description=true</ref> She was wearing a blouse and a necklace as well as two golden earrings, showing she was of higher class.<ref>http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/en_GB/skrydstrup</ref><ref>http://www.gallica.co.uk/bronzeage/skrydstrup.html</ref>
The [[Egtved Girl]], dated to 1370 BCE, was found also inside a sealed coffin inside of a tumulus, in 1921. She was wearing a [[bodice]] and a skirt, including a belt and bronze bracelets. Also found with the girl were the cremated remains of a child at her feet, and by her head a box containing some bronze pins, a hairnet, and an [[awl]].<ref>Hogan, C. Michael, Girl Barrow, The Megalithic Portal, editor A. Burnham 4 October 2007</ref><ref>Barber, E.W. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Macmillan, London, 1999. ISBN 0-393-04521-8</ref><ref>Michaelsen, K.K. Politikens bog om Danmarks Oldtid. Politiken, Denmark, 2002. ISBN 87-00-69328-6</ref>
=== Bog bodies ===
The [[United Kingdom]], the [[Republic of Ireland]], [[Germany]], the [[Netherlands]], [[Sweden]], and [[Denmark]] have produced a number of [[bog bodies]], mummies of people deposited in [[bog|sphagnum bogs]], apparently as a result of murder or ritual sacrifices. In such cases, the acidity of the water, cold temperature and lack of oxygen combined to [[tanning|tan]] the body's skin and soft tissues. The skeleton typically disintegrates over time. Such mummies are remarkably well preserved on emerging from the bog, with skin and internal organs intact; it is even possible to determine the decedent's last meal by examining [[stomach]] contents. A famous case is that of the [[Haraldskær Woman]], who was discovered by labourers in a bog in [[Jutland]] in 1835. She was erroneously identified as an early medieval Danish queen, and for that reason was placed in a royal [[sarcophagus]] at the [[Saint Nicolai Church]], [[Vejle]], where she currently remains.
==North America==
=== Greenland ===
In 1972, eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned [[Inuit]] settlement called [[Qilakitsoq]], in [[Greenland]]. The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month old [[baby]], a four year old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around 500 years ago. Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found.<ref>{{cite web | last = Deem | first = James M. | title = World Mummies: Greenland Mummies | url = http://www.mummytombs.com/mummylocator/group/greenland.htm | publisher = Mummy Tombs | date = last updated 2007-03-15 | accessdate = 16 March 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Hart Hansen | first = Jens Peder | coauthors = Jørgen Meldgaard; Jørgen Nordqvist (eds.) | title = The Greenland Mummies | location = London | publisher=British Museum Publications | year = 1991 | isbn = 0714125008}}</ref> The oldest completely preserved mummy in North America is [[Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi]] ("Long ago person found" in the [[Southern Tutchone]] language of the [[Champagne and Aishihik First Nations]]), found in August 1999 by three First Nations hunters at the edge of a glacier in [[Tatshenshini-Alsek Park]]. It was determined that he had died about 550 years ago and that his preserved remains were the oldest discovered in North America.<ref>{{cite web | last = Ministry of Tourism, Sport and the Arts, British Columbia | title = Kwaday Dan Ts'inchi | url = http://www.tsa.gov.bc.ca/archaeology/kwaday/ | accessdate = 8 March 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070125170847/http://www.tsa.gov.bc.ca/archaeology/kwaday/ <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 25 January 2007}} {{wayback|http://www.tsa.gov.bc.ca/archaeology/kwaday/|2007-10-25}}; {{cite web | last = Lundberg | first = Murray | title = Kwaday Dän Sinchi, The Yukon Iceman | url = http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa082599.htm | publisher = ExploreNorth | date = 24 July 2001 | accessdate=25 October 2007 }}</ref>
=== Mexico ===
[[File:Placid death.JPG|left|300px|thumb|A momia from Guanajuato]]
Intentional mummification was uncommon in [[pre-Columbian Mexico]], though some examples have been found. Regardless of context, intentionally mummified remains that have been excavated in Mexico are commonly referred to as [[Aztec mummy|Aztec mummies]]. Public knowledge of Aztec mummies was due to traveling exhibits in the 19th and 20th centuries, though these just as likely used naturally mummified human bodies.
Natural mummification has been known to occur in several places in [[Mexico]], though the most famous are the [[mummies of Guanajuato]].<ref name=prof>{{cite news |title= Professor unravels secrets of the Guanajuato mummies |newspaper=US Fed News Service, Including US State News |location=Washington, D.C. |date=August 30, 2007}}</ref> A collection of these mummies, most of which date to the late 19th century, have been on display at ''El Museo de las Momias'' in the city of [[Guanajuato, Guanajuato|Guanajuato]] since 1970. The museum claims to have the smallest mummy in the world on display (a mummified [[fetus]]).<ref>{{cite book |title= Guanajuato: Guia para descubrir los encantos del estado|editor= Jimenez Gonzalez, Victor Manuel |isbn=978 607 400 177 8 |year=2009 |publisher=Solaris |location=Madrid, Spain |language= Spanish |page=103}}</ref> It was thought that minerals in the soil had the preserving effect, however it may rather be due to the warm, arid climate.<ref name=prof/><ref>{{cite news |title= Detroit Science Center: The Accidental Mummies of Guanajuato Touring Exhibition to Make World Debut in Detroit |newspaper=Pediatrics Week. |location=Atlanta |date=June 27, 2009 |page=97}}</ref> Mexican mummies are also on display in the small town of [[Encarnación de Díaz]], [[Jalisco]].
{{Main|Buddhist mummies|Sokushinbutsu}}
Monks whose bodies remain [[incorruptibility|incorrupt]] without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death. Self-mummification was practiced until the late 1800s in Japan and has been outlawed since the early 1900s.
Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know their time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in [[lotus position]], put into a vessel with drying agents (such as [[wood]], [[paper]], or [[Calcium oxide|lime]]) and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years. The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold.
[[Victor H. Mair]] claims that the self-mummification of a Tibetan monk, who died ca. 1475 and whose body was retrieved relatively incorrupt in the 1970s, was achieved by the sophisticated practices of meditation, coupled with prolonged starvation and slow self-suffocation using a special belt that connected the neck with his knees in a [[lotus position]].
Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several [[Japan]]ese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, [[Nut (fruit)|nuts]], [[seed]]s, [[root]]s, [[pine|pine bark]], and ''[[Toxicodendron vernicifluum|urushi]]'' tea.<ref>[http://www.sonic.net/~anomaly/japan/dbuddha.htm The Buddhist Mummies of Japan<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Some of them were buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt.
==Modern mummies==
[[File:Mao Zedong portrait.jpg|thumb|150px|left|[[Mao Zedong]] was mummified after his death in 1976.]]
In the 1830s, [[Jeremy Bentham]], the founder of [[utilitarianism]], left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy. He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance"; once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton (minus his skull, which despite being mis-preserved, was displayed beneath his feet until theft required it to be stored elsewhere),<ref>http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/12653</ref> which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought." His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the [[University College London]].
During the early 20th century the Russian movement of [[Cosmism (Russian)|Cosmism]], as represented by [[Nikolaj Fedorov]], envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people. The idea was so popular that, after [[Lenin]]'s death, [[Leonid Krasin]] and [[Alexander Bogdanov]] suggested to [[Cryonics|cryonically preserve]] his body and brain in order to revive him in the future.<ref>See the article: А.М. и А.А. Панченко «Осьмое чудо света», in the book Панченко А.М. О русской истории и культуре. St. Petersburg: Azbuka, 2003. Page 433.</ref> Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realized.<ref>Ibidem.</ref> Instead his body was [[Embalming|embalmed]] and placed on permanent exhibition in the [[Lenin's Mausoleum|Lenin Mausoleum]] in Moscow, where it is displayed to this day. The mausoleum itself was modeled by [[Aleksey Shchusev]] on the [[Pyramid of Djoser]] and the [[Tomb of Cyrus]].
In the state of [[Guanajuato]], [[Mexico]], [[Mummies of Guanajuato|mummies were discovered]] in a cemetery of a city named [[Guanajuato, Guanajuato|Guanajuato]] northwest of [[Mexico City]] (near León). They are accidental modern mummies and were literally "dug up" between the years 1896 and 1958 when a local law required relatives of the deceased to pay a kind of grave tax. The Guanajuato mummies are on display in the ''Museo de las momias,'' high on a hill overlooking the city. Another notable example of natural mummification in modern times is [[Christian Friedrich von Kahlbutz]] (1651–1702), whose body is on exhibit in his native [[Kampehl]].
In 1994, 265 mummified bodies were found in the crypt of a [[Dominican Order|Dominican]] church in [[Vác]], [[Hungary]] from the 1729-1838 period. The discovery proved to be scientifically important, and by 2006 an exhibition was established in the Museum of Natural History in [[Budapest]].<ref>[http://www.nhmus.hu/tarak/embertar/gyujtemenyek/ujkorimumgyujt.html Újkori múmiák gyűjteménye<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> In March 2006, the body of the [[Greek Orthodox]] [[Monk]] [[Vissarion Korkoliacos]] was found [[incorrupt|intact in his tomb]], after fifteen years in the grave. The event has led to a dispute between those who believe the preservation to be a [[miracle]] and those who claimed the possibility of natural mummification.
In 2010, a team led by forensic archaeologist, Stephen Buckley, mummified Alan Billis using techniques based on 19 years of research of 18th dynasty Egyptian mummification. The process was filmed for television, for the documentary
"Mummifying Alan: Egypt's Last Secret"<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.channel4.com/programmes/mummifying-alan-egypts-last-secret/articles/the-mummification-protocol |title=Mummifying Alan: Egypt's Last Secret - Features - The Mummification Protocol - Channel 4 |first= |last=Channel 4 |work=channel4.com |year=2012 [last update] |quote=Mummifying Alan: Egypt's Last Secret |accessdate=February 14, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite episode
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===Commercial mummification===
[[File:Cat Mummification by Summum.jpg|thumb|300px|A cat being mummified by [[Summum]].]]
In 1975, an [[esoteric]] organization by the name of [[Summum]] introduced "Modern Mummification", a service that uses modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods. The organization considers animals and people to have an [[essence]] that continues following the death of the body, and their mummification process is meant to preserve the body as a means to aid the essence as it transitions to a new destination.
Rather than using a dehydration process that was typical of ancient mummies, Summum uses a chemical process which includes leaving the body submerged in a tank of preservation fluid for several months. Summum claims its process preserves the body so well that the DNA will remain intact far into the future, leaving open the possibility for [[cloning]] should science perfect the technique on humans.
The first person to formally undergo Summum's process of modern mummification was the founder of Summum, [[Claude Nowell|Summum Bonum Amen Ra]] aka Corky Ra, who died in January 2008. His body is encased inside a bronze mummiform (casket) that is covered in gold and stands inside the organization's pyramid.<ref name="CNNBeliefBlog">{{cite news|last = Ravitz|first = Jessica|coauthors =|title = Summum: Homegrown spiritual group, in news and in a pyramid|work =|pages =|language =|publisher = CNN|date = 11 June 2010|url = http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2010/06/11/summum-a-belief-system-in-the-news-%E2%80%93-and-unlike-any-other/|accessdate = 25 September 2010}}
</ref><ref name="MummiformPhotos">{{cite web|last =|first =|authorlink =|coauthors =|date =|year =|month =|url = http://www.summum.us/gallery/main.php?g2_view=core.ShowItem&g2_itemId=1618|title = The Golden Mummiform of Amen Ra|format =|work =|pages =|publisher = Summum|accessdate = 25 September 2010}}
</ref> Summum is further discussed in the book ''The Scientific Study of Mummies'' by Arthur C. Aufderheide.<ref name="NGPetWrap">{{Cite video| people = Chan, Wah Ho (Cinematographer)|date= 1996| title = Pet Wraps&nbsp;| medium = TV| location = &nbsp;USA| publisher = National Geographic Television}}</ref><ref name="AufderheideSummum">{{cite book | last = Aufderheide | first = Arthur C. | year = 2003 | title = The Scientific Study of Mummies | publisher = Cambridge University Press | pages = 60, p. 411 | location = Cambridge | isbn = 0-521-81826-5}}</ref>
[[Plastination]] is a technique used in [[anatomy]] to conserve bodies or body parts. The [[water]] and [[fat]] are replaced by certain [[plastic]]s, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample.
The technique was invented by [[Gunther von Hagens]] when working at the anatomical institute of the [[University of Heidelberg]] in 1978. Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially as the creator and director of the [[Body Worlds]] traveling exhibitions,<ref>[http://www.bodyworlds.com Body Worlds Official Web Site]</ref> exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally. He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in [[Heidelberg]].
More than 40 institutions worldwide have facilities for plastination, mainly for medical research and study, and most affiliated to the International Society for Plastination.<ref>[http://isp.plastination.org/ International Society for Plastination]</ref>
===Treatment of ancient mummies in modern times===
In the [[Middle Ages]], based on a mistranslation from the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] term for [[bitumen]], it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties. As a result, it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine. When actual mummies became unavailable, the [[Desiccation|sun-desiccated]] corpses of criminals, slaves and [[Suicide|suicidal]] people were substituted by mendacious merchants.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/B/bodies/cases/case18.html | title = What was mummy medicine? | accessdate = 8 February 2008 | publisher = [[Channel 4]] }}</ref> The practice developed into a wide-scale business that flourished until the late 16th century. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties to stop bleeding, and were sold as [[pharmaceutical]]s in powdered form as in [[mellified man]].<ref name="Daly unwrapping">{{cite journal | author = Daly, N. | year = 1994 | title = That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy | journal = NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction | volume = 28 | issue = 1 | pages = 24–51 | doi = 10.2307/1345912 | jstor=1345912}}</ref>
Artists also made use of Egyptian mummies; a brownish paint known as ''[[Caput mortuum]]'' (Latin for ''death's head'') was originally made from the wrappings of mummies. It was most popular in the 17th century, but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists. Many thousands of mummified cats were also sent from Egypt to England to be processed for use in [[fertilizer]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Wake, Jehanne |author-link=Jehanne Wake |title=Kleinwort, Benson: the history of two families in banking |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |location=Oxford [Oxfordshire] |year=1997 |pages= |isbn=0-19-828299-0 |oclc= | url = http://books.google.com/?id=Qm1fHrcgZuoC&pg=RA1-PA118&dq=mummified+cats+fertilizer }}</ref>
During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, Egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in [[Victorian Era|Victorian England]]. European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions.<ref name="Daly unwrapping"/> These sessions destroyed hundreds of mummies, because the exposure to the air caused them to disintegrate.
An [[Urban legend|urban myth]] of mummies being used as [[fuel]] for [[steam locomotive|locomotives]] was even popularized by [[Mark Twain]],<ref name="Straight">{{cite web | url = http://www.straightdope.com/columns/020222.html | publisher = [[The Straight Dope]] | title = Do Egyptians burn mummies as fuel? | date = 22 February 2002 | accessdate = 16 March 2008 }}</ref> but the truth of the story remains debatable. During the [[American Civil War]], mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture [[paper]].<ref name="Straight"/><ref name="Capital Weekly">{{cite news | last = Pronovost | first = Michelle | url = http://www.mainecoastnow.com/articles/2005/03/17/capitalweekly/local_news/n6mummy.txt | accessdate = 16 March 2008 | date = 17 March 2005 | publisher = [[Capital Weekly]] | title = Necessity of paper was the 'mummy' of invention}}</ref> Evidence for the reality of these claims is still equivocal.<ref name="Baker">{{cite book |last=Baker |first=Nicholson |title=''Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper'' |year=2001 |publisher=Random House |location=New York |isbn=0357504443 }}</ref><ref name="Dane">{{cite journal |last=Dane |first=Joseph A. |year=1995 |title=The Curse of the Mummy Paper |journal= Printing History |volume=17 |pages=18–25 }}</ref>
==In popular culture==
[[File:Ghost1.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Lon Chaney, Jr.]] as [[Kharis]] in the film ''[[The Mummy's Ghost]]'' (1944)]]
[[File:StoogeMummy.jpg|thumb|300px|In 1939, The Three Stooges spoofed the discovery of [[Tutankhamun|King Tutankhamun]] with their short film "[[We Want Our Mummy]]".]]
Mummies are commonly featured in [[Horror (genre)|horror]] genres as [[undead]] creatures. One of the earliest examples of this is ''[[The Mummy!|The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century]]'', an 1827 novel written by [[Jane C. Loudon]]. This early, science-fiction work concerns an Egyptian mummy named Cheops, who is brought back in to life in the 22nd century.
During the 20th century, [[horror film]]s and other mass media popularized the notion of a [[curse]] associated with mummies (''see [[Curse of the pharaohs]]''). One of the earliest appearances was ''[[The Jewel of Seven Stars]]'', a [[horror novel]] by [[Bram Stoker]] first published in 1903 that concerned an archaeologist's plot to revive an ancient Egyptian mummy. This book later served as the basis for the 1971 film ''[[Blood from the Mummy's Tomb]]''.
Films representing such a belief include the 1932 movie ''[[The Mummy (1932 film)|The Mummy]]'' starring [[Boris Karloff]] as [[Imhotep (character)|Imhotep]]; four subsequent 1940s' [[Universal Studios]] mummy films which featured a mummy named [[Kharis]], who also was the title mummy in ''[[The Mummy (1959 film)|The Mummy]]'', a 1959 Hammer remake of ''[[The Mummy's Hand]]'' and ''[[The Mummy's Tomb]]''; and [[The Mummy (1999 movie)|a remake of the original film]] that was released in 1999 (and later spawned two direct sequels and prequels and a spinoff movie). The belief in cursed mummies probably stems in part from the supposed curse on the tomb of [[Tutankhamun]]. In 1979, the [[American Broadcasting Company]] aired a TV holiday show, ''[[The Halloween That Almost Wasn't]]'', in which a mummy from Egypt (Robert Fitch) arrived at [[Count Dracula]]'s castle without speaking.
The 1922 discovery of [[Tutankhamun]]'s tomb by archaeologist [[Howard Carter (archaeologist)|Howard Carter]] brought mummies into the mainstream. [[Slapstick]] comedy trio the [[Three Stooges]] humorously exploited the discovery in the short film ''[[We Want Our Mummy]]'', in which they explored the [[tomb]] of the [[midget]] King Rutentuten (and his Queen, Hotsy Totsy). A decade later, they played crooked used [[chariot]] salesmen in ''[[Mummy's Dummies]]'', in which they ultimately assisted a different King Rootentootin ([[Vernon Dent]]) with a toothache.
Robot mummies featured in a ''[[Doctor Who]]'' story, ''[[Pyramids of Mars]]'', in the 1970s, while the [[Hammer Horror]] film series had also included what had become a stock genre character. A new Hollywood series of films featuring an immortal undead High Priest began with ''[[The Mummy (1999 film)|The Mummy]]'' in 1999, [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120616/ click here] .
Even after that the world saw two more Mummy movies- The [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0209163/ Mummy Returns 2001] and [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0859163/ The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008)].
==See also==
*[[List of mummies]]
*[[List of DNA tested mummies]]
*[[Siberian Ice Maiden]]
<div class="references-small">
*{{Cite book|last = Aufderheide|first = Arthur C.|authorlink =|year = 2003|title = The Scientific Study of Mummies|publisher = Cambridge University Press|location = Cambridge|isbn = 0-521-81826-5|unused_data = ISBN status = May be invalid - please double check}}
*Barber, Elizabeth Wayland. 1999. ''The Mummies of Ürümchi''. 1999. London. Pan Books. Also: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04521-8.
*[[E. A. Wallis Budge|Budge, E.A.Wallis]]. 1925. ''The Mummy, A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology.'' Dover Publ. Inc., New York, Dover Ed. 1989, (512 pgs.) ISBN 0-486-25928-5.
*Davis-Kimball, Jeannine, with Behan, Mona. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist’s Search for History’s Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. First Trade Printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6.
*Ilkerson, Bill. 2006. ''Wrap-It-Up: How My Lost Child Will Survive Us All''. Portland. Eye of Raw Texts. ISBN 0-439-56827-7.
*Mallory, J. P. and Mair, Victor H. 2000. ''The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West''. Thames & Hudson. London. 2000. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
*[[Heather Pringle]]. 2001. ''Mummy Congress: Science, Obsession, and the Everlasting Dead''. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028669-1.
*Taylor, John H. 2004. ''Mummy: the inside story''. The British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-1962-8.</div>
<div class="references-small">
*{{Cite news|url = http://www.editinternational.com/index.php?pag=stories.php?cat=3f5121f82466f|title = The Mummy Makers|publisher = Edit International|date = 2003-2004|accessdate = 29 May 2006}}
*[http://science.howstuffworks.com/mummy.htm Mummies] at [[Howstuffworks.com]].
*[http://www.thehallofmaat.com/modules.php?name=Articles&file=article&sid=45 A look at the Evidence for Cocaine in Mummies]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/20091027144751/http://geocities.com/dimitrovs75/mummy.htm About the Unknown Mummy E]
* {{Cite web|last =|first =|authorlink =|date =|year =|month =|url = http://www.summum.us/mummification/|title = Summum - Modern Mummification|work =|pages =|publisher = Summum|language =|accessdate = 29 May 2006|curly =}}
*[http://www.voxel-man.de/gallery/the_virtual_mummy/ The Virtual Mummy: Unwrapping a Mummy by Mouse Click]</div>
<div class="references-small">
*{{Cite video|people = Chan, Wah Ho (Cinematographer)|date= 1996|title = Pet Wraps&nbsp;|medium = TV|location = &nbsp;USA|publisher = National Geographic Television}}
*{{Cite video|people = Frayling, Christopher (Writer/Narrator/Presenter)|date= 1992|title = The Face of Tutankhamun&nbsp;|url = http://amazon.imdb.com/title/tt0262957/|medium = TV-Series|location = &nbsp;England/USA|publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)}}</div>
==External links==
{{Wikinews|30 brightly coloured mummies discovered in Egyptian necropolis}}
*[http://www.getty.edu/art/videos/mummification_process/mummification_process.html Mummification Process animation] from the [[J. Paul Getty Museum]]
*[http://brian.finucane.googlepages.com/mummies Naturally Preserved Peruvian Mummies]
*[http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-08/25/content_368631.htm World's Best Preserved Mummies in China]
*[http://www.ucl.ac.uk/Bentham-Project/info/marmoy.htm The "Auto-Icon of Jeremy Bentham], from a [[University College London]] website
*[http://www.akhet.co.uk/cat.htm Cat Mummies]
*[http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/40692/truly-amazing-mummies Truly Amazing Mummies] - slideshow by ''[[Life magazine]]''
*[http://www.aldokkan.com/religion/mummy.htm Egyptian and Incan Mummification]
*[http://www.akhet.co.uk/clikmumm.htm Clickable Mummy]
*[http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmnh/mummies.htm Mummies] from the [[Smithsonian Institution]].
*[http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/rameses/rameses.html Rameses: Wrath of God or Man?] at [[Discovery Channel]]
*[http://www.summum.org/mummification/pets/animalgallery.shtml Summum - Animal Mummy Gallery]
*[http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/04/0430_030430_royalmummy.html U.S. Museum to Return Ramses I Mummy to Egypt], an article from the ''[[National Geographic Society|National Geographic]]'' website
*''[http://www.sarahbakewell.com/Other%20Writing.html#Cookingwithmummy Cooking With Mummy]'', by Sarah Bakewell, ''[[Fortean Times]]'' 124, July 1999. Article on the medicinal uses of mummy.
*[http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-8-15.pdf Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age]
{{Ancient Egypt topics}}
{{Prehistoric technology}}
[[Category:Ancient Egyptian funerary practices]]
[[Category:Arabic words and phrases]]
[[Category:Archaeology of death]]
[[Category:Corporeal undead]]
[[Category:Egyptian artefact types]]
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