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'''Operacija Zaštitni rub''' (''heb.'' מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, ''Mivtza' Tzuk Eitan'') počela je 8. srpnja 2014. bojevim djelovanjem [[Izraelske obrambene snage|Izraelskh obrambenih snaga]] (IDF) u [[pojas Gaze|pojasu Gaze]].<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/idfs-operation-protective-edge-begins-against-gaza/2014/07/08/ | title = IDF’s Operation "Protective Edge" Begins Against Gaza | publisher= Jewish Press | accessdate = 8. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> U pet dana poginulo je 148 Palestinaca.<ref name="BBC12July">{{cite web |url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-28279562 |title= UN calls for Israel-Gaza ceasefire |website= BBC|date= July 12, 2014 |accessdate= July 12, 2014}}</ref> Ured Ujedinjenih Naroda za koordinaciju humanitarnih poslova procjenjuje da su oko 80% ubijenih civili, od kojih su 21% bili djeca (do 13.7.).<ref name="OCHA13July ">{{cite web|url=http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_sitrep_14_07_2014.pdf|title=Occupied Palestinian Territory: Gaza Emergency Situation Report (as of 13 July 2014, 1500 hrs)|publisher=Ured Ujedinjenih Naroda za koordinaciju humanitarnih poslova|date=2014}}</ref> Do 13.7. srpnja, prijavljeno je više od 1.300 izraelskih zračnih napada, s oko 800 raketa izbačenih na Gazu iz Izraela.<ref name=voa_thousands_flee>[http://www.voanews.com/content/israel-makes-first-ground-incursion-in-gaza/1956454.html ''Thousands Flee Gaza Homes Under Israel Threat'']. Voice of America, 13. srpnja 2014.</ref>
 
== Nastanak sukoba ==
Povod za izbijanje sukoba bila je otmica i ubojstvo trojice izraelskih tinejdžera na [[Zapadna obala|Zapadnoj obali]] u lipnju 2014., zbog čega je Izrael optužio [[Hamas]].<ref name = "CBS 2014 Jun 26">{{Citiranje weba | url = http://www.cbsnews.com/news/israel-ids-2-main-suspects-in-teens-disappearance/ | title = Israel IDs 2 main suspects in teens disappearance | newspaper = [[CBS News]] | date = 26.6. 2014}}</ref><ref>{{Citiranje weba | title = Operation Brother’s keeper | contribution = In extended version of kidnapped teens call to police, murderers heard singing in celebration | url = http://www.jpost.com/Operation-Brothers-Keeper/In-extended-version-of-kidnapped-teens-call-to-police-murderers-heard-singing-in-celebration-361270 | newspaper = The Jerusalem Post| accessdate= 29. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Ipak, izraelske vlasti nisu ponudile nijedan dokaz o toj tvrdnji<ref name=Islamist_group_blame>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/10901225/Hamas-kidnapping-Islamist-group-to-blame-for-youths-kidnapping-Benjamin-Netanyahu-says.html ''Hamas kidnapping: Islamist group to blame for youths' 'kidnapping', Benjamin Netanyahu says'']. Robert Tait, The Telegraph, 15. lipnja 2014.</ref> a sam Hamas je osporio da je imao ikakve veze s tim incidentom.<ref name=Newman>[http://www.timesofisrael.com/netanyahu-hamas-behind-kidnapping-of-three-teenagers/#ixzz35Dg026iL ''Netanyahu: Hamas behind kidnapping of three teenagers'']. Marissa Newman, The Times of Israel, 15. lipnja 2014.</ref> Zbog nemira nakon otmice, deset Palestinaca je poginulo<ref>{{Citiranje weba | title = Middle East & Africa: Murder of three kidnapped Israeli youths has set dangerous new spate | url = http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21606288-murder-three-kidnapped-israeli-youths-has-set-dangerous-new-spate | newspaper = The Economist}}</ref> dok je nekoliko stotina uhićeno od izraelske policije i vojske na Zapadnoj obali u potrazi za otetim mladićima.<ref>{{citiranje weba | first = Yoav | last = Zitun | url = http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4532764,00.html | title = Rescue units rushed to Hebron, searching wells and caves | publisher = Ynet | date = 21.6. 2014}}</ref><ref>{{citiranje weba | first = John B | last = Judis | url = http://www.newrepublic.com/article/118630/israel-palestine-murders-cause-criss-will-john-kerry-step | title = John Kerry's First Peace Effort in Israel and Palestine Failed, But Now He Needs to Try Again | newspaper = The New Republic | date = 9.srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Hamas, koji je zaustavio ispaljivanje raketa iz Gaze na Izrael od primirja postignutog nakon završetka [[Operacija Stup od oblaka|Operacije Stup od oblaka]], preuzeo je izravnu odgovornost za ponovno lansiranje raketa na Izrael 8. srpnja 2014.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2014/0707/Ending-detente-Hamas-takes-responsibility-for-today-s-spike-in-rocket-fire-video | title=Ending détente, Hamas takes responsibility for today's spike in rocket fire (+video) | work =The Christian Science Monitor | accessdate=11.srpnja 2014. | last =Bryant | first = Christa Case}}</ref> te zahtijevao da se oslobode Palestinci koji su uhićeni tijekom pretrage.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/for-israel-in-gaza-a-delicate-balancing-act/ | title= For Israel in Gaza, a delicate balancing act | work = The Times of Israel | accessdate= 8. srpnja 2014.}}</ref>
 
PovodUzrok zaoperacije izbijanjemeđusoban je slijed krvavih incidenata sve jednog goreg od drugoga: 15. sukobasvibnja bilaIDF je otmicaubio dva palestinska tinejdžera, točno 4 tjedna kasnije, 12. lipnja 2014., oteta su i ubojstvoubijena trojicetrojica izraelskih tinejdžera na [[Zapadna obala|Zapadnoj obali]] uza lipnju 2014., zbog čegašto je Izrael optužioosumnjičen [[Hamas]].<ref name = "CBS 2014 Jun 26">{{Citiranje weba | url = http://www.cbsnews.com/news/israel-ids-2-main-suspects-in-teens-disappearance/ | title = Israel IDs 2 main suspects in teens disappearance | newspaper = [[CBS News]] | date = 26.6. 2014}}</ref><ref>{{Citiranje weba | title = Operation Brother’s keeper | contribution = In extended version of kidnapped teens call to police, murderers heard singing in celebration | url = http://www.jpost.com/Operation-Brothers-Keeper/In-extended-version-of-kidnapped-teens-call-to-police-murderers-heard-singing-in-celebration-361270 | newspaper = The Jerusalem Post| accessdate= 29. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Ipak, izraelskeIzraelske vlasti nisu ponudile nijedandruge dokaz odokaze toj tvrdnji osim podatka da su osumnjičeni članovi Hamasa iz Hebrona, Marwan Kawasmeh, 29, i Amar Abu-Isa, 32, ranije već osuđivani<ref name=Islamist_group_blame>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/10901225/Hamas-kidnapping-Islamist-group-to-blame-for-youths-kidnapping-Benjamin-Netanyahu-says.html ''Hamas kidnapping: Islamist group to blame for youths' 'kidnapping', Benjamin Netanyahu says'']. Robert Tait, The Telegraph, 15. lipnja 2014.</ref> adok samje Hamas je osporio da je imao ikakve veze s tim incidentom.<ref name=Newman>[http://www.timesofisrael.com/netanyahu-hamas-behind-kidnapping-of-three-teenagers/#ixzz35Dg026iL ''Netanyahu: Hamas behind kidnapping of three teenagers'']. Marissa Newman, The Times of Israel, 15. lipnja 2014.</ref> Zbog nemira nakon otmice, deset Palestinaca je poginulo<ref>{{Citiranje weba | title = Middle East & Africa: Murder of three kidnapped Israeli youths has set dangerous new spate | url = http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21606288-murder-three-kidnapped-israeli-youths-has-set-dangerous-new-spate | newspaper = The Economist}}</ref> dok je nekoliko stotina uhićeno od izraelske policije i vojske na Zapadnoj obali u potrazi za otetim mladićima.<ref>{{citiranje weba | first = Yoav | last = Zitun | url = http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4532764,00.html | title = Rescue units rushed to Hebron, searching wells and caves | publisher = Ynet | date = 21.6. lipnja 2014.}}</ref><ref>{{citiranje weba | first = John B | last = Judis | url = http://www.newrepublic.com/article/118630/israel-palestine-murders-cause-criss-will-john-kerry-step | title = John Kerry's First Peace Effort in Israel and Palestine Failed, But Now He Needs to Try Again | newspaper = The New Republic | date = 9. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Hamas, koji je zaustavio ispaljivanje raketa iz Gaze na Izrael od primirja postignutog nakon završetka [[Operacija Stup od oblaka|Operacije Stup od oblaka]], preuzeo je izravnu odgovornost za ponovno lansiranje raketa na Izrael 8. srpnja 2014.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2014/0707/Ending-detente-Hamas-takes-responsibility-for-today-s-spike-in-rocket-fire-video | title=Ending détente, Hamas takes responsibility for today's spike in rocket fire (+video) | work =The Christian Science Monitor | accessdate=11.srpnja 2014. | last =Bryant | first = Christa Case}}</ref> te zahtijevao da se oslobode Palestinci koji su uhićeni tijekom pretrage.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/for-israel-in-gaza-a-delicate-balancing-act/ | title= For Israel in Gaza, a delicate balancing act | work = The Times of Israel | accessdate= 8. srpnja 2014.}}</ref>
Nekoliko sati nakon pogreba trojice izraelskih mladića židovski ekstremisti oteli su i zapalili 16-godišnjeg palestinskog dječaka kao osvetu.<ref name="Sterman" >{{cite news | first =Adiv | last = Sterman |title=Six Jewish extremists arrested in killing of Jerusalem teen | work =The Times of Israel |url= http://www.timesofisrael.com/suspects-arrested-in-killing-of-east-jerusalem-teen/ | date = 6. srpnja 2014. |accessdate=10. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Policija je kasnije uhitila šest Židova zbog tog zločina.<ref name="Sterman"/><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=710388 |title = Israel arrests suspects in murder of Palestinian teen |publisher=Ma'an News Agency |date=6.srpnja 2014.}}</ref> To je pak bio okidač nove eskalacije među palestinskim stanovništvom te su se nemiri proširili po istočnom Jeruzalemu i drugim arapskim naseljima širom Izraela i Zapadne obale,<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.timesofisrael.com/spate-of-riots-erupt-in-northern-israel/|title=Protests erupt again in East Jerusalem, southern Israel|date=6. srpnja 2014.|publisher =The Times of Israel}}</ref> dok se izraelski premijer [[Benjamin Netanyahu]] javno ispričao obitelji ubijenog palestinskog dječaka.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2014/07/07/world/meast/mideast-tensions/|title=Israel calls up reservists as rockets fly|date=8. srpnja 2014. |publisher=CNN}}</ref> Istodobno, započeli su novi napadi: Hamas je lansirao raketa iz pojasa Gaze na jug Izraela, dok je IDF započeo sa zračnim napadima na Gazu. Egipat su uključio u pokušaj postizanja primirja.<ref>{{citiranje weba | url = http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28156268 | title = Hamas 'ready for Gaza ceasefire' if Israeli raids stop | newspaper = [[BBC News]] | date = 4.srpnja 2014.}}</ref>
 
Nekoliko sati nakon pogreba trojice izraelskih mladića židovski ekstremisti oteli su i zapalili 16-godišnjeg palestinskog dječaka kao osvetu.<ref name="Sterman" >{{cite news | first =Adiv | last = Sterman |title=Six Jewish extremists arrested in killing of Jerusalem teen | work =The Times of Israel |url= http://www.timesofisrael.com/suspects-arrested-in-killing-of-east-jerusalem-teen/ | date = 6. srpnja 2014. |accessdate=10. srpnja 2014.}}</ref> Policija je kasnije uhitila šest Židova zbog tog zločina.<ref name="Sterman"/><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=710388 |title = Israel arrests suspects in murder of Palestinian teen |publisher=Ma'an News Agency |date=6.srpnja 2014.}}</ref> To je pak bio okidač nove eskalacije među palestinskim stanovništvom te su se nemiri proširili po istočnom Jeruzalemu i drugim arapskim naseljima širom Izraela i Zapadne obale,<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.timesofisrael.com/spate-of-riots-erupt-in-northern-israel/|title=Protests erupt again in East Jerusalem, southern Israel|date=6. srpnja 2014.|publisher =The Times of Israel}}</ref> dok se izraelski premijer [[Benjamin Netanyahu]] javno ispričao obitelji ubijenog palestinskog dječaka.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2014/07/07/world/meast/mideast-tensions/|title=Israel calls up reservists as rockets fly|date=8. srpnja 2014. |publisher=CNN}}</ref> Istodobno, započeli su novi napadi: Hamas je lansirao raketa iz pojasa Gaze na jug Izraela, dok je IDF započeo sa zračnim napadima na Gazu. Egipat suse uključio u pokušaj postizanja primirja.<ref>{{citiranje weba | url = http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28156268 | title = Hamas 'ready for Gaza ceasefire' if Israeli raids stop | newspaper = [[BBC News]] | date = 4. srpnja 2014.}}</ref>
 
Ipak, pokušaj primirja nije uspio. Oko 100-injak raketa je ispaljeno iz Gaze 7. srpnja na gradove [[Be'er Sheva]], [[Ashdod]], [[Ofakim]], [[Ashkelon]] i [[Netivot]].<ref>{{citiranje weba | url = http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/7/7/israel-launched-deadlyairstrikesingaza.html | title = Israel launches military offensive in Gaza | publisher = [[Al-Jazeera]] | date = 7. srpnja 2014.}}.</ref><ref>{{citiranje weba | first = Noam | last = Sheizaf | url = http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/7/8/israeli-palestinianclashesupsettingisraelifaithinstatusquo.html | title = Israeli-Palestinian clashes upsetting Israeli faith in status quo | publisher = [[Al-Jazeera]] | date = 7.srpnja 2014.}}.</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/1.603472 | type = live updates | date = 7. srpnja 2014. | title = Rockets bombard south, Hamas claims responsibility | work =[[Haaretz]] | accessdate=11.srpnja 2014.}}</ref> IDF je potom uzvratio zračnim napadima na pojas Gaze u noći s ponedjeljka<ref>{{Citiranje weba | first1 = Spencer | last1 = Ho | first2 = Yifa | last2 = Yaakov | url = http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-pounds-dozens-of-gaza-targets-in-major-counteroffensive/ | title = Israel hits Hamas, Islamic Jihad leaders after rockets land north of Tel Aviv | type = blog | at = 08:02 | newspaper = The Times of Israel | date = 8.srpnja 2014.}}.</ref> na utorak, 8. srpnja. Izraelska zračna obrana, tzv. željezna kupola, uspjela je zaustaviti dobar dio napada. IDF je također spriječio prelazak palestinskih militanata na izraelski teritorij morskim putem.<ref>{{cite web | last = Horovitz |first= David |url= http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-pounds-dozens-of-gaza-targets-in-major-counteroffensive |title=Israel hits Hamas, Islamic Jihad leaders after rockets land north of Tel Aviv | work =The Times of Israel |date = 2013-12-23}}</ref>
 
19. srpnja IDF je pokrenuo i kopnenu ofenzivu u Gazi, čime su dodatno pojačane žrtve zbog borbi oko zgrada. Nakon 13 dana sukoba, [[UN]] je objavio da je u pojasu Gaze raseljeno 83.695 Palestinaca dok je poginulo preko 500.<ref>{{cite web|title=Gaza crisis: UN calls for ceasefire as deaths pass 500|author=BBC News|publisher=bbc.co.uk|date=21. srpnja 2014.|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28397215}}</ref>
 
== Medijski prikaz ==
 
Američki mediji prikazuju akciju Izraela u pozitivnijem tonu od Britanaca, koji oštro kritiziraju zbivanja.<ref>http://www.timesofisrael.com/gaza-war-seen-rather-differently-in-us-uk-newspapers/ objavljeno 11. srpnja 2014., pristupljeno 29. srpnja 2014.</ref>
 
<gallery>
File:SderotBurningFactory3.JPG|<center>Tvornica u Sderotu nakon što ju je pogodila raketa iz Gaze
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