Vinland

Područje priobalnoga dijela Sjeverne Amerike koji su istraživali Vikinzi

Vinland (engleski: Vinland, Vineland[1][2] ili Winland[3], staronordijski: Vínland) naziv je za područje priobalnoga dijela Sjeverne Amerike koji su istraživali Vikinzi predvođeni Leifom Ericssonom. Oni su se iskrcali u Sjevernu Ameriku oko 1000. godine, oko pet stoljeća prije Kristofera Kolumba i Johna Cabota.[4] O pronalasku Vinlanda govore sage Grœnlendinga saga i Eiríks saga rauða. Smatra se da su opisana područja u sagama zapravo Newfoundland, Zaljev sv. Lovrijenca i sjeveroistok Novog Brunswicka. Godine 1960. u arheološkom nalazištu L'Anse aux Meadows na sjeveru Newfoundlanda pronađeno je jedino nordijsko naselje[5][6] u Sjevernoj Americi izvan Grenlanda. Prije otkrića arheološkog nalazišta, o Vinlandu se jedino znalo preko nordijskih saga i srednjovjekovne historiografije. To otkriće dokazalo je nordijsko istraživanje Sjeverne Amerike.[5] Hipotezirano je da je L'Anse aux Meadows zapravo kamp Straumfjörð iz sage Eiríks saga rauða.[7][8]

Leif Ericcson otkriva Sjevernu Ameriku (Leiv Eriksson oppdager Amerika), Christian Krohg, 1893.
Rekonstruirana nordijska kuća, L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland i Labrador, Kanada

IzvoriUredi

  1. Laurence Marcellus Larson in Canute the Great: 995 (circ.)-1035 and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age, New York: Putnam, 1912 p. 17
  2. Elizabeth Janeway in The Vikings, New York, Random House, 1951 throughout
  3. Danver, Steven L. (2010). Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating History's Intriguing Questions, ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-1-59884-078-0
  4. William C. Wonders (2003). Canada's Changing North, str. 28–29, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-7132-7
  5. 5,0 5,1 L'Anse aux Meadows. L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada. Parks Canada (2018) pristupljeno 17. lipnja 2020. “Here [L'Anse aux Meadows] Norse expeditions sailed from Greenland, building a small encampment of timber-and-sod buildings …”
  6. Ingstad, Helge; Ingstad, Anne Stine (2001). The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse Settlement in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4716-2.
  7. Is L'Anse aux Meadows Vinland?. L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada. Parks Canada (2003) pristupljeno 20. travnja 2010.
  8. Significance of the discovery of butternut shells at L'Anse aux Meadows: Birgitta Wallace, "The Norse in Newfoundland: L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland", The New Early Modern Newfoundland: Part 2 (2003), Vol. 19, No. 1. "Many scholars have dismissed L’Anse aux Meadows as peripheral in the Vinland story (Kristjánsson 2005:39). I myself held that view for a long time. I am now contending that L’Anse aux Meadows is in fact the key to unlocking the Vinland sagas. Two factors crystallized this idea in my mind. One was my subsequent research into early French exploitation outposts in Acadia (Wallace 1999) and the nature of migration (Anthony 1990) [...] The second signal was the identification of butternut remains in the Norse stratum at L’Anse aux Meadows. Here was the smoking gun that linked the limited environment of northern Newfoundland with a lush environment in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where wild grapes did indeed exist. The mythical Vinland had a basis in archaeological fact." Birgitta Wallace, "L’Anse aux Meadows, Leif Eriksson’s Home in Vinland", Norse Greenland: Selected Papers from the Hvalsey Conference 2008 Journal of the North Atlantic, 2009, 114-125.

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